Requirements for the PhD program often involve the student having already obtained a Master’s degree. Additionally, a thesis or dissertation primarily consisting of original academic research must be submitted. In some countries, this work may even need to be defended in front of a panel.
Officially known as the Italian Republic, the country is found in southern Europe. The official language is Italian and the cultural rich capital is Rome. Many of the world's oldest universities are located in Italy, in particular the University of Bologna (founded in 1088). There are three Superior Graduate Schools with "university status", three institutes with the status of Doctoral Colleges, which function at graduate and post-graduate level.
The cheese city of Italy - Parma is known for its architecture and rich heritage. It has some of the oldest universities of Italy like University of Parma. Therefore, whoever is interested in getting a good education in a traditional place must live in Parma.
Evolutionary Biology and Ecology (in agreement with Univ of Ferrara and Firenze)
Biotechnology and Life Science
Civil Engineering and Architecture
Mathematics (in agreement with Univ. of Modena e Reggio Emilia e Univ. of Ferrara)
Materials Science and Technology (in agreement with CNR and Univ of Cape Town - South Africa)
Philological-Literary, Historical-Philosophical and Artistic Studies
Translational Medical and Surgical Sciences
Course list - other administrative head office (Parma in agreement)...